The dreams of Antonio serve as unifying motifs and also perform the function of revelatory manifestation. Although the notion of epihany does not fit in this context in its entirety, it is through dreams that Antonio comes to realize the reality of life and which later help him to take decision for his own life.
As this paper attempts to explore the ethnical conflicts inherent in the layers of the novel, when Caminero-Santangelo says that “ethnicity is not the theme that is foregrounded in the novel (Caminero-Santangelo, 115)” it appears complex to look at the novel in this light any more. Caminero-Santangelo’s argument states that as the “scholarship of ethnic literature” assume that the ethnic novels of American literature ought to manifest being “ethnic” or “bicultural” in the US, therefore the novel does not fit into ethnic literature (Caminero-Santangelo, 115). Moreover, Caminero-Santangelo argues that the ethnic novels must manifest the cultural context which serve to build the plot of the novel, but Anaya’s novel focuses on the “issues of personal identity,” which fail to be associated with the “social and identity issues” in broader sense that were evident in other works of ethnic literature which tended to focus on the Chicano Movement. The significance of Chicano Movement in the discussion of ethnic conflicts during the wake of 1960s and 1970s when the movement was at its peak is very important. Caminero-Santangelo describes the objectives of the Chicago Movement as to build an “ethnic identiy on the basis of mestizaje (“hybridity”) and the recovery of an indigenous past (Caminero-Santangelo 115).”
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