Sample Essay

The greatest of the failures of the UN in the period after cold war was in Somalia as well as in Rwanda. The UN spent a huge sum and military force in Somalia but failed to keep peace. The ‘use of force’ is considered incompatible with the process of keeping peace and the very difference of the ‘defensive’ and ‘offensive use of force’ is diminished to an extent[1].

In comparison to the period of the Cold war period the Post Cold war period was different as in this period there were around forty two missions by the Security Council of the UN and among which thirty three reached to completion leaving nine up till the year 2003[2]. The difference between the two eras was the rapid enhancement of the employment of missions as well as the change of ‘geographical focuses of the missions to Asia, Europe and Africa while leaving from the Middle East[3]. There was also a change in the focus from curbing the situations of aggression to constructing peace that involve prosperity of the civilians, ‘institutional development and democracy’ as witnessed in the instances of ‘East Timor and Bosnia and Herzegovina’[4].

The peacekeeping operations can be divided into three phases that include the first generation of ‘peacekeeping operations’ that started from 1946, while the second is the revitalization of the operations in 1988, and the third is the ‘Second Generation’ of ‘peacekeeping’ after the ‘Cold war’[5][6].

[1] Same as 5 (14)

[2] Same as 9(30)

[3] Same as 9(30)

[4] Same as 9(30)

[5] Chappell, Duncans, and John Evans. “The Role, Preparation and Performance of Civilian Police in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations.” Criminal Law Forum, 1999: 171-271.

[6] Same as 3 (205)

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