In an attempt to better integrate humans with their jobs and tools, a number of researches have been carried out which have result in development of several models that are now used in aviation industry for improving flight safety. These include SHEL Model, Reason’s Swiss Cheese Model and HFACS.
4.1. The SHEL Model
The SHEL model is a conceptual model that is used for analysis of human factors. The SHEL model is named after the initial letter of its components which are : Software, Hardware, Environment and Liveware. The SHEL model was developed in 1982 and was further improved as “building block” model which is currently used today. In the SHEL model the match or mismatch between the block (interfaces) is defined as an important characteristic of the blocks themselves. These blocks can be set according to the requirement in order to describe the system they built. A connection exist between the blocks which indicate the interface between the two components. In the SHEL model, each component of the system is required to be defined both physically and functionally (Ruishan, Lei & Ling, 2007).
4.2. The Swiss Cheese Model
The Swiss Cheese model was proposed by James Reason in 1990 and describe four levels of human failure, with each level influencing the next level.This model was first to introduce the concept of active failures and latent failures. In this model the first level of failure represent the unsafe acts of operators, which are most commonly referred to as aircrew/pilot error, one of the major causes of airline accidents as shown by numerous investigations (Ruishan, Lei & Ling, 2007).
The Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was designed as a taxonomic system which would be used to categorize both active and latent factors that have been highlighted in the aviation accidents. The purpose of this model is to establish a framework which would be used in investigation of aviation accidents as well as a tool for assessing trends in accidents (Ruishan, Lei & Ling, 2007).
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