The problems that can possibly come out with the memory during programming include uninitialized memory, memory over-read, memory overwrite, memory leak, reallocation and de-allocation problems, and dangerous access of null pointers. If a pointer is allocated ten bytes of memory, the ten bytes will be reserved. But they might be containing some garbage value to be filled with standard data later on. Therefore measures in each of the techniques are there for handling such a situation of uninitialized memory.
The number of bytes when read in a way that they become more than what they actually are, in terms of their size is referred to as memory over-read. Memory Leak is something very irritating and occurs when a memory space loses its identity in some way. It is related to the use of prior memory space if a memory location is assigned to some other space. Solutions are many like the release of first memory space before any further assignments. When return values are mishandled and not returned to their intended destiny then calling routine will be responsible for keeping an account of the memory location to hold properly. If an account to keep every pointer up to date is lost at any point, it would cause a disaster and release of few memory segments will not be made possible. Sometimes null pointers may crash the whole application therefore this is to make sure on every step that null pointers are not accessed by anyone (Virmani, 2006).
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