By the end of the European World Wars, the focus of Human security had evolved in the West as the protection of refugees, reconstruction after the conflicts and identity rights were the focus of individual security needs. The period after World War Two also demanded a shift in discourse, as the state proved unable to provide physical and psychological protection from security threats. The Cold War era, although dominated by national security policy, still had room for humanistic focus; for instance, states Buzan (1983), which included the three pillars of identity, institutions and population in order to sustain a sovereign state.
Buzan (1983), in his discussion of nations, states and nation-states, further explored the role of individual identity (identities) in state creation and maintenance. According to Buzan (1983), individual security is a societal concern with four types of societal threats, physical, economic, rights, and position/status, all of which are not mutually exclusive. By 1989, Tuchman Mathews had expanded on Buzan’s list of threats to human security and included overpopulation, patterns of land tenure, the environment and reproductive health as well.
 MacFarlane, Neil S, and Yuen Foong Khong. Human security and the UN: a critical history. Indiana University Press, 2006.
 Buzan, Barry. People, states, and fear: the national security problem in international relations. Wheatsheaf Books, 1983.
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 Mathews, Jessica Tuchman. “Redefining Security.” Foreign Affairs, 1989.
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