A link may act as a constraint or a restrictive factor if it curtails or slows down production. A bottle neck operation is a production process through which the product must pass to be complete and acts as a “binding constraint” on the speed and efficiency of production. For example, in a manufacturing operation concerning the production of automobiles, one of the important links is direct labor.
If the number of direct laborers who work on the cars is a restrictive factor, the company can relax this direct labor constraint in a number of ways by enlarging the base of the bottle neck operation. Firstly, a company can use outsourcing as a way to ease the constraint. An example is HR organizations which provide temporary specialized staff to companies with excess demand. In this way, the company does not have to hire permanent staff and incur additional charges and all the expenses associated with recruitment and training. Another way to ease constraints is to work overtime and increase the number of direct labor hours in this way. However, many manufacturing companies work 3 shifts in a day, so this technique might be futile for these organizations. One more technique is to retrain employees and replacing them to the constraining operation so that the bottleneck can be eased.
 C1 Ibid. pp. 25 & 603
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