Dust bowl is a term which is often associated with the event of the severe wind attrition, which took place in the 1930s. The effect of this dust bowl resulted in severe drought and lack of preservation practices. The dust bowl caused mass departure of migrants in the American history. By the end of 1940 almost 2.5 million people moved out from the plain states and headed to different part of the country.
Around 200,000 moved to California leaving behind their infertile land, and most of them lost their homes due to foreclosure. Many of the farmers were forced to migrate while leaving behind their farms in Kansas, Texas, and Mexico.
Eventually these states faced tremendous amount of joblessness. They suffered with a serious drought, which for several years denied them to produce the usual amount of wheat and cotton. Alongside the drought it also gave space for the wind driven dust storms which was obviously the result of ecological changes which happened due to the drought. The wind driven storms had the most effect on the western side of the country with the likes of Kansas and Texas. During 1933 to 1935 on several occasions the dust storms hit these areas causing massive damage which eventually caught the attention of the government and after which the affected area was known as the Dust Bowl (Gregory).
The affected families that migrated from the drought driven areas showed up in large numbers in the fields of California. They came here with great expectations and hope but very soon all their hope turned into vain and massive disappointment. It was almost impossible for the authorities to generate employment opportunities for them, shortage of work became a huge problem and those who were working were hired on very low wages. There was no proper accommodation for them and the housing was taken place in the form of tents or shacks.
The huge number of immigrants that moved to California, it was a significant population transfer which eventually resulted in poverty and unemployment .The migration of tons of unemployed and dispossessed immigrants evoked many hardships and it moved towards a great depression. The drought and the resultant wind attrition hugely impacted on the economic and social life of the people as there were a huge number of people who were left jobless. Later on all these immigrants were called the dust blow refugees.
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