Sample Term Paper

The theory of clash of civilizations is quite old but gained momentum after the debate between Charles P. Huntington and Francis Fukuyama.

“The most famous of the debates about the future after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of Soviet Communism took place between Francis Fukuyama (‘the end of history’) and Samuel Huntington (‘the clash of civilizations’)” (Sacks p.37).

Fukuyama was of the view that economics was far more powerful than politics and the Soviet Union had primarily failed due to lack of economic advantages in the system and economic needs of people were not fulfilled. According to Fukuyama the world was heading towards a free market economy and secular democracy where the competition among nations would be more economical than martial. He put forth the idea that all countries would eventually move towards laissez-faire economic system and democracy. Fukuyama stated that conflicts based on ideology were leading to an end of history and the outcome would be a peaceful world where countries compete economically disregarding any cultural and religious differences. Huntington on the other hand had a completely opposing point of view and explained that though the world was experiencing modernization but this did not necessarily mean that the cultural and religious differences between the western countries and other countries of the world would end with this modernization.

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