Sample Term Paper
The HDSL4 standard was created in order to facilitate operation over long distances without the use of repeaters and thus maintaining spectral compatibility. This is achieved by using two paired cables for transmission of data. The HDSL4 standard shares the principle of transfer of half of the signal over each paired cable to reduce bandwidth usage and hence reduce attenuation. The underlying technology shares some of the features of HDSL2 like coded 16-PAM modulation with different spectrums of frequencies available for upstream and downstream communication (Jones, 2006).
The performance requirements for HDSL2 stipulate operation in the presence of various disturbances according to carrier service area (CSA) requirements. In simple words 2.7km over 0.4 mm wires and 3.7 km over 0.5 mm wire. HDSL2 can operate over longer distances with the use of repeaters however repeater use causes problems due to spectral incompatibility. This problem was the reason behind creation of HDSL4 (Jones, 2006).
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