Sample Term Paper

Aristotle considered the mixed constitution as the best it would contain monarchic, aristocratic and democratic elements, its citizens, after they learnt to obey , were given chance to participate in the rulings.(Encyclopedia Britannica vol.5; 1974, pg 93 ).The great works of the social contract laid the foundation of constitutional theory. In the 17th century,  Thomas Hobbes and John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau in the 18th century, Rousseau united all individual citizens into all-powerful sovereign whose main purpose was to express general common will of the individuals. Rousseau’s thoughts are more democratic towards constitutional government.

Locke and Hobbes were more concerned to provide constitutional stability through consent ,they also provided firm assurance of the individual’s natural rights, by dividing the powers to the monarch and the parliament, John Locke also was against the concentration of power by the co-operation of other organs of the state government to accomplish different purposes. Thomas Hobbes main contribution to constitutionalism lies in his extreme rationalism, according to Hobbes individuals come together out of the state of nature, like state of disorder and war, their reason tells them that they can ensure their safety by giving all power to the sovereign, the sovereign may be a single person or an assembly or whole body of citizens and division of these powers destroyed sovereignty. Jean Jacques Rousseau writes. “He that makes the law knows better than anyone else how it should be executed and interpreted. It would seem than, there could be no better constitution than, one in which the executive power is united with the legislature.”(The Government of Europe by William Bennet Munro- chapter xxvii, pg 847).

Costs on Basis of Cost Objective

  • Direct costs – All costs that can be traced to a specific cost objective . For example in a manufacturing enterprise, finished goods can be a cost objective. The costs of raw materials used in the production of a finished good  are direct costs.
  • Indirect costs – A cost that is incurred for multiple cost objectives. For example, the rent on a building that houses several departments. Indirect costs are then allocated on some allocation base.

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