Sample Term Paper

The first ever self sufficing nervous system mechanism was proposed by Descartes. He took on animals as his subjects and analyzing the animals’ behavior in context with that of man he was able to identify and put forward that that the only differentiating actor between the nervous system of a man and a beast was that the man had the element of consciousness and that he could be rational instead of simply responding to action triggered by the sensory organs.A doctrine by Clifford was put forward which related to the relationship of the brain and the mental capacity of the human being, which was backed by less refine considerations which were metaphysical in nature. He stated that “All the evidence that we have goes to show that the physical world gets along entirely by itself, according to practically universal rules. . . . The train of physical facts between the stimulus sent into the eye, or to any one of our senses, and the exertion which follows it, and the train of physical facts which goes on in the brain, even when there is no stimulus and no exertion, – these are perfectly complete physical trains, and every step is fully accounted for by mechanical conditions. . . . The two things are on utterly different platforms – the physical facts go along by themselves, and the mental facts go along by themselves. There is a parallelism between them, but there is no interference of one with the other. Again, if anybody says that the will influences matter, the statement is not untrue, but it is nonsense” (James, 1987)

 

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