Sample Term Paper
There are two standardized version of ADSL which are incompatible with each other. The ANSI standard for ADSL is called Discrete MultiTone (DMT) while an early and easy to implement standard also exist which is called a Carrierless Amplitude/Phase (CAP) system. According to equipment manufacturers, currently, most of the ADSL devices both in the exchange and at user premises use the ANSI version of ADSL that is DMT (Vermillion).
Carrierless Amplitude/Phase System (CAP)
The CAP system works by separating the signals in the telephone line into three unique bands. The voice traffic is carried in the frequency range of 0 to 4 KHz, as this band is support by all POTS equipment universally. The data from the user to the service provide (or the upload channel) is carried by frequencies in the range of 25 to 160 KHz. The downstream channel on the other hand, begins at the frequency of 240 KHz and goes up to the maximum frequency support by the line. The maximum frequency is variable and depends on conditions such as the line length, noise as well as the number of users on a particular telephony switch, but has an upper limit of 1.5MHz. All the three frequency bands are widely separated which reduces the chances of interference between the bands as well as signals from different lines (Morreale and Terplán).
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