Sample Term Paper

The Northern Hemisphere has more land space so it warms up faster than the Southern Hemisphere. As a result, 2005 was declared the warmest year according to the report by GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) since the late 1800s, exceeding the temperature record set in 1998 by a few hundredths of a degree. The reference is made to that era because it was only from that point on did actual widespread instrumental scientific weather data collection was instigated, whereas the years prior to the late 1800s remain uncertain. Other estimates, however, suggest that 2005 was second to 1998 (WMO and Climatic Research Unit). All this contributes to a change in atmosphere that, if the slow responsiveness of the ocean to thermal heat was any hint, means that the climate can take centuries for it to adjust to the changes in forcing. What this means is that the earth’s surface air would continue to rise in temperature regardless of the restrictions imposed on further production of greenhouse gases (a further 0.5 °C if the gases were to be stabilized at 2000 levels) because of the prolonged lifetime of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Several different nations have come to realize the effects of this and about 40 different scientific societies and academies back the IPCC’s findings.

Awareness has lead to several different measures be taken to rectify the warming procedure.  First effort in that regard is the Kyoto Protocol 1997, which is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (an international treaty signed by various countries of the UN to address the issue of global warming). The primary focus of this treaty was to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, now covering an expansive 160 countries, amounting to 55% of the total gas emissions. This resulted in tighter emission control schemes in place for big corporations that rely on burning fossil fuels and thus contribute directly to greenhouse emissions. In 2005, the European Union launched the European Union Emission Trading Scheme in accordance with this ideology. Australia launched its own scheme entitled Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme in 2008. Furthermore, emphasis is added to considering alternative fuel sources other than fossil fuels for areas such as transportation and energy supply. Giant motoring corporations such as Toyota and General Motors are increasingly resorting to greener hybrid vehicles and or completely electric power trains, meeting standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (in the U.S). Resort is taken to renewable forms of energy for power generation, such as wind and solar energy. These efforts are designed to mitigate the effects of greenhouse emissions on the planet.

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