Sample Term Paper

A thread is considered as a basic unit of CPU utilization, it’s the smallest unit of processing. Threads are managed both at operating system level as well as the processor level and how it happens depends on the operating system used and the architecture of the underlying hardware. At Operating System level threads are classified as user threads and kernel threads.

User threads are processes based user managed threads and needs to be mapped to kernel level threads to be given to the processor to execute. Kernel threads are managed entirely by operating system and user interference is not allowed in their activities. To map user threads to kernel threads different approaches are utilized which includes one-one, many-one, many-many and two level mapping. To provide greater concurrency for an application one-one mapping of user threads to kernel threads is used. This model has the limitation that creation of every other kernel thread for each user thread is an expensive operation having a high overhead there for a lot of systems having this implementation restrict the number of user threads used. This model is used in operating system including Linux, family of Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000 and XP. Many-many model maps different user threads to smaller or equal number of kernel thread.

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