Sample Term Paper

“A woman in sub-Saharan Africa has a 1 in 16 chance of dying in pregnancy or childbirth, compared to a 1 in 4,000 risk in a developing country”[1]. Children born in developing countries, of which all Sub-Saharan countries are, are over 13 times more likely to die under the age of 5 than children born in developed countries[2]. Women and children in impoverished areas of sub-Saharan Africa are at heightened risk due to the patriarchal system at local social level. Any threats that men and boys face in pastoralists/rural environment along with environment with dense population, urban or rural settings are compounded by their denied access to nutrition, maternal/pre/post-natal health and opportunities including literacy and education shapes their health indicators and consequently their human security.

The people most affected by health security are those that lack access to treatment and prevention tools including various vulnerable groups such as the rural and urban poor. Due to their constant mobility, occupying life on the periphery of society and often mistrust of people from outside the community, pastoralists in sub-Saharan Africa have very limited access to health education, medical supplies/medicine and medical facilities. Paired with this, governments and NGOs have very little interest in treating and supporting pastoralist health as the geographical regions they occupy are on the margins of society, sometimes in dangerous/conflict prone/cross-border areas and they have very little political influence.

[1] UNICEF, “5. Improve Maternal Health,” Millennium Development Goals, Accessed 10 March 2001:

[2]United Nations Development Program, “Reduce Child Mortality,” MDG Monitor: Tracking the Millennium Development Goals, 2007. Accessed 10 March 2010:

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