Sample Term Paper

The increased usage of T1 and E1 connections at consumer locations led to the development of this technology as an alternative to traditional Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) and High Density Bipolar (HDB3) modulation based technologies which were problematic due to excessive crosstalk. The method used for data compression in DSL is 2B1Q (Two Binary, One Quaternary) line code modulation.

The effective range of HDSL1 transmissions without the use of repeaters for signal regeneration lies between 12000 and 15000 feet. The use of more than one pairs of twisted pair copper cable helps in increasing reach because the bandwidth used on each pair is lesser as compared to a single twisted pair cable. This leads to lesser energy losses (attenuation) per km of transmission. Attenuation is frequency dependent, the lesser bandwidth availability per twisted pair cable results in reduction of attenuation during transmission. Lower bandwidth also helps ensure compatibility at a spectrum level with existing systems. The downside of using more than one pairs per customer is that fewer customers can be served with a given number of twisted pair; single pair cables have the advantage of serving more customers while sacrificing some level of spectral compatibility and suffering losses due to attenuation. This led to the creation of high performance DSL which used single pair cable while using a smaller bandwidth at the same time (Jones, 2006; Littman, 2002).

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