Sample Term Paper
The need to retain spectral compatibility with existing systems while achieving acceptable reach over a single twisted pair copper cable led to the development of HDSL2 (High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line Phase 2). Like HDSL HDSL2 is based on PAM but it provides several enhancements that were not available with HDSL. One of the added features offered by HDSL2 is the use of error correcting codes.
This implies that HDSL2 sends enough redundant information with each block of data sent to enable the receiver to work out the errors without the need to retransmit data. HDSL2 also uses Trellis-Coded Modulation (TCM) which allows for several decibels of extra performance to the system. TCM is a standard for high speed modems that allows for automatic error correction using extra bits in each sample. One consequence of using TCM is that the signal is equalized before transmission by the transmitter which is in direct contrast to the traditional method of equalization at the receiver end.
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